industry Resources

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE FIBERS

MATERIALSTRENGTH-TO-WEIGHT
KN.M/Kg.
ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH
MPa
DENSITY
G/Cm3
Kevlar251427571.44
Carbon Fiber245741371.75
E Glass Fiber130734502.57
Nylon69751.15

PROTECTION LEVELS

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TYPECALIBERCLASSMASS (g)VELOCITY (M/S)STANAG
4569
NIJ (0108.01)CEN (EU)VPAMUL (Underwriters Lab)DIN (German Standard)
.22 Long Rifle5.6 x 15Handgun, Rifle2.6320-IB11--
.38 Special9.1 x 29Handgun10.2259-I----
.357 Magnum9 x 33Handgun10.2381, 430-II-A, IIB3422
.44 Magnum10.9 x 33Handgun15.55440-IIIAB4433
9 mm Parabellum9x19Handgun, SMG8427-IIA, II, IIIAB221, 61
Shotgun12 GaugeShotgun28.3503--SG2-1-5 SG Part 1
Kalashnikov (AK-47)7.62 X 39Rifle8720---6--
M16/AR-155.56X45 NATO SS109Rifle49001-B57--
M16/AR-155.56X45 NATO M193Rifle3.569371---7
FN SCAR-H7.62 x 51 NATO M80 BallRifle9.658331IIIB6-5, 84
Kalashnikoc (AK-47 Military)7.62 x 39 API BZInfantry Rifle7.776952--8--
7.62mm Rifle7.62 x 51 AP M61Rifle9.7805-----5
.30-06 Rifles7.62 X 63 AP (.30-06) M2 APHigh-Power Rifle10.8868-IV--9-
Dragunov Sniper Rifle7.62 X 54R B32 APISniper Rifle10.48543--10--
7.62mm Rifle7.62 X51 AP M993 (WC core)Sniper Rifle8.49303-B711--
50 Browning12.7 X 99 M2 BallHigh-Power Rifle45900----10-
50 Browning12.7 X 99 M2 APHigh-Power Rifle45930---13--
KPV Heavy Machine Gun14.5 x 114 API/ B32Heavy Machine Gun649114--14--

MILITARY AND BALLISTIC STEEL

We have great relationships with all the top US suppliers for Armor Steel and Structural Steel. Below is a quick overview of steel we use for our products.

Military grade standards focus primarily on two factors: hardness and ballistic limit.

Hardness is represented by the Brinell Hardness Number (BHN), which is calculated by comparing the amount of applied force to the size of the indentation of the force on a piece of material.

Military grades of steel have a BHN that is two to three times higher than common low-carbon steel — such as A36. The higher the BHN, the more abrasion-resistant the material, which is a critical characteristic of military steel.

Below is a chart that compares the BHN of standard low-carbon steel with military grade steels, as well as abrasion resistant steels.

BHN BETWEEN STEEL GRADES

GRADECATEGORYBNH
A36Low-Carbon Steel133 BNH
AR400Abrasion Resistant360-440 BNH
AR500Abrasion Resistant470-540 BNH
MIL-46100Military Grade477-534 BNH
MIL-12560Military Grade330-410 BNH
MIL-46177Military Grade362 BNH

Abrasion resistant grades of steel have similar or higher BHNs than military grades of steel, but the difference between AR and military grade steel is that military grades undergo ballistic limit testing.

Ballistic testing finds the velocity at which a target would completely penetrate and partially penetrate a target using a controlled projectile, firing pattern and velocity. This certifies and guarantees the ballistic limit and integrity of the material.

COMMERCIAL GRADE ARMOR

Commercial grade armor is certified to meet the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) standards 0101.06. These standards classify ballistic “threat levels” that the armor will protect against.

WHAT ARE NIJ COMPLIANT ARMORS TESTED AGAINST?

IIA IIIA Bullet Icon II II Bullet Icon IIIA III Bullet Icon III IV Bullet Icon IV

EXISTING LEVELS OF PROTECTION

LEVEL IIA Tested to stop 9mm and .40 S&W ammunition fired from short barrel handguns. No rifle ammunition protection.
II Bullet Icon LEVEL II Tested to stop 9mm and .357 Magnum ammunition fired from short barrel handguns. No rifle ammunition protection.
IIIA Bullet Icon LEVEL IIIA Tested to stop .357 SIG and .44 Magnum ammunition fired from longer barrel handguns. No rifle ammunition protection.
III Bullet Icon LEVEL III Tested to stop .762mm FMJ lead core rifle ammunition.
IV Bullet Icon LEVEL IV Tested to stop .30cal steel core armor piercing rifle ammunition.

COMMON MILITARY GRADES

While there are many types of military grades of metal materials, the most common steel grades are MIL-A-46100, MIL-A-12560 and MIL-A-46177.

MIL-A-46100

MIL-A-46100 steel plate is typically used to stop hyper-velocity projectiles (HVPs) and sniper fire. This grade is available up to 2-inches in thickness, depending on the size and speed of the projectile as well as the distance the projectile is traveling.

MIL-A-46177

MIL-A 46177 is a less commonly used grade. It has a max thickness of 0.249-inches and is primarily used for armor, liners or small vehicle applications.

MIL-12560

MIL-12560 is a common military-specified armor used in a variety of defense applications,including:
• Combat vehicles
• Ammunition testing
• Protection of landmines and explosives

Compared to other military grades, MIL-12560 absorbs shock very well. MIL-12560 must meet Fragment Simulated Projectile standards before being certified, and is available in four classes:

CLASS 1
Resistance
to penetration

CLASS 2
Resistance
to shock

CLASS 3
Testing
and evaluation

CLASS 4
Maximum resistance
to penetration